In order to avoid disclosing information to a potential hacker, a number of errors result in the rather terse "Bad Mac" error. Fundamentally, this means that the credentials supplied were invalid for some reason. Errors regarding scopes will use more informative error messages.

The most common error is forgetting to include the certificate in addition to the clientId and accessToken. There is no need to interpret the certificate (please don't!); just treat it as an opaque string. Omitting the certificate when it is required will generally result in "Bad Mac" errors.